Effets à long terme de l’ombrage et des niveaux d’intrants sur les rendements de café dans la région Pacifique du Nicaragua

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Arlene LÓPEZ-SAMPSON
Norvin SEPÚLVEDA
Mirna BARRIOS
Eduardo SOMARRIBA
Rodolfo MUNGUÍA
Pedro MORAGA
Alejandro PONCE
Luis OROZCO-AGUILAR
Elvin NAVARRETE
Ledis NAVARRETE

Résumé

La pertinence et la rentabilité de la culture du café en Amérique centrale sont menacées par des infestations de ravageurs et des maladies, par la fluctuation des cours et par le changement climatique. La culture du café sous ombrage approprié serait une des pratiques les plus prometteuses dans une optique de développement durable et d'adaptation de la caféiculture en zone marginale. La présente étude vise à enregistrer et à comparer    les rendements de cerises de café sur une période de 10 ans, sous l'ombrage d'essences fixatrices d'azote et d'essences à bois d'œuvre dans le cadre de différents systèmes d'agroforesterie (culture conventionnelle / culture biologique) sur site suboptimal. Pour certaines années de la période d'étude, des écarts de production significatifs sont constatés entre le système conventionnel et différentes combinaisons avec intrants biologiques sous différents types d'ombrage. Les systèmes de culture intensive en plein soleil sont les plus productifs en termes de rendement de café, suivis des systèmes sous ombrage d'essences à bois d'œuvre. Il est intéressant de noter que, quel que soit le système de gestion (conventionnel intensif ou biologique intensif), les systèmes de culture sous ombrage d'essences légumineuses (Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd. + Simarouba glauca DC.), sont les moins productifs en termes de rendement de café. Sur l'ensemble des placettes étudiées, les essences à bois d'œuvre Simarouba glauca et Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC. montrent une bonne croissance, avec un accroissement moyen en diamètre de 2,5-3,3 cm/an (à 12 ans d'âge). Les systèmes d'agroforesterie en plein soleil et sous ombrage d'essences à bois d'œuvre génèrent les revenus bruts moyens les plus élevés. Globalement, les régimes intensifs sont les plus coûteux en gestion bien qu’ils aient les meilleures performances en termes de rendement de café.

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Rubrique
ARTICLES SCIENTIFIQUES

Références

Références bibliographiques / References / Referencias bibliográficas

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