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Politiques et pratiques en matière de bois-énergie dans certains pays d’Afrique subsaharienne – un examen critique

P. Sola, J. Schure, R. Eba’a Atyi, D. Gumbo, I. Okeyo

Résumé


L'Afrique subsaharienne reste très dépendante des biocombustibles, qui couvrent 60 % de sa demande énergétique totale. Bien que le bois-énergie soit une source d'énergie importante pour des millions de personnes en Afrique subsaharienne, il est rarement suffisamment reconnu dans les politiques énergétiques. Depuis des décennies, les politiques gouvernementales ont supposé que la croissance économique et l'augmentation des revenus des ménages qui en résulterait entraînerait un passage à des carburants plus "modernes". Cependant, avec des niveaux de pauvreté toujours élevés et le manque d'accès à des sources d'énergie alternatives abordables, cette transition est loin de devenir une réalité. Cet article conceptualise la gouvernance du bois-énergie et analyse les politiques et les mécanismes institutionnels pertinents pour le sous-secteur du bois-énergie dans certains pays : Cameroun, République démocratique du Congo, Kenya et Zambie. Sur la base d'un examen structuré de la littérature, il évalue les politiques et les mécanismes juridiques existants et leur mise en œuvre, dans le contexte des pratiques actuelles le long des chaînes de valeur du bois-énergie dans ces mêmes pays. La principale conclusion est que, bien que le bois-énergie soit de plus en plus reconnu comme une source d'énergie majeure dans la plupart des pays, il est souvent associé à des résultats environnementaux négatifs et à des résultats socio-économiques positifs. Récemment, les gouvernements de plusieurs pays ont élaboré des politiques et des cadres législatifs pour guider, gérer, soutenir et réglementer la production et le commerce du bois-énergie. En dépit des dispositions légales, l'industrie du bois de feu fonctionne en grande partie dans le secteur informel et n'est pas réglementée et/ou réprimée dans certains endroits. La gouvernance des chaînes de valeur du bois-énergie est confrontée à des défis majeurs liés au manque de clarté des arrangements institutionnels et des mécanismes d'application, aux capacités limitées et aux comportements corrompus, ainsi qu'à l'insuffisance des investissements et du financement. Par conséquent, une gouvernance plus intégrée et mieux adaptée est nécessaire pour que les chaînes de valeur durables du bois-énergie deviennent une réalité.


Mots-clés


énergie du bois, charbon de bois, application, bois-énergie, gouvernance, politiques, République démocratique du Congo, Kenya, Zambie, Afrique

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Références


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.19182/bft2019.340.a31690



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