Potentialité des données satellitaires Sentinel-2 pour la cartographie de l’impact des feux de végétation en Afrique tropicale : application au Togo

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Yawo KONKO
Bareremna AFELU
Kouami KOKOU

Résumé

Le réchauffement climatique est un phénomène d’envergure mondiale qui se répercute sur le système climatique. Une des conséquences du réchauffement climatique est l'extension de la période de sécheresse, favorisant ainsi l’augmentation des fréquences du phénomène des feux de végétation. Les feux incontrôlés perturbent l’écologie et la fonctionnalité des écosystèmes, entraînant parfois leur érosion. La présente étude est une contribution pour la gestion des feux de végétation au Togo et porte sur le suivi spatial pour la saison des feux 2018-2019. Elle explore la potentialité des nouvelles données satellitaires Sentinel-2 (S-2) en accès libre dans la gamme de la télédétection optique pour la détection des surfaces brûlées, la cartographie des feux utilitaires et des feux incontrôlés. Elle teste également la performance de la méthode de cartographie des feux de végétation à partir de l’indice NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio) initialement conçue pour les images Landsat et évalue la biomasse végétale brûlée. Les résultats révèlent que les images S-2 présentent du potentiel dans la restitution des surfaces brûlées. La performance de la méthode de l’indice NBR sur les images S-2 est satisfaisante. La cartographie des feux de végétation montre que les feux utilitaires représentent 21,75 % contre 78,25 % pour les feux incontrôlés. L’ensemble des feux de végétation enregistrés a occasionné l’incendie de 5 878 km2 du couvert végétal, soit 10,39 % du territoire national. Le couvert végétal brûlé est composé majoritairement de savanes (33,12 %), de cultures et jachères (24,48 %), de plantations (14,59 %), de forêts claires (14,43 %) et de forêts riveraines (13,02 %). Les résultats obtenus constituent des éléments tangibles pour le suivi, la sensibilisation, l’élaboration des plans d’aménagement, de prévention et de gestion des feux.

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Rubrique
ARTICLES SCIENTIFIQUES

Références

Références

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