Revue systématique des plantes médicinales antipaludiques utilisées en République démocratique du Congo

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Butoto Imani wa RUSAATI
Arusi Patience GENDUSA
Sung-Hyun JOO
Joo Won PARK
Cephas Ndabaga MASUMBUKO
Gentil Iragi KABOYI
Koto-te-Nyiwa NGBOLUA
Astrid Matendo FURAHA
Nkulu Kabange ROLLY
Jun Won KANG

Résumé

En République démocratique du Congo (RDC), le paludisme est transmis par un parasite appelé Plasmodium falciparum. Le paludisme représente un problème majeur de santé publique dans ce pays en provoquant la mort de dizaines de milliers de personnes chaque année, en milieu urbain et rural. Des médicaments antipaludiques sont couramment utilisés mais des cas avérés de résistance à ces médicaments représentent un obstacle important à la lutte contre le paludisme. Il est donc impératif d'identifier de nouvelles molécules bioactives pouvant s'y substituer. De nombreuses plantes médicinales ayant des propriétés diverses s'utilisent en RDC pour traiter différentes maladies, dont le paludisme. Le présent article propose une revue systématique des ressources végétales antipaludiques en RDC. Sur la base de 28 articles sur l'ethnomédecine publiés entre 2001 et 2019, 232 espèces végétales appartenant à 67 familles de végétaux et identifiées dans 13 provinces ont été répertoriées pour le traitement du paludisme. De nombreuses espèces appartiennent aux familles des Fabacées, Astéracées, Euphorbiacées, Rubiacées et Apocyanacées. Les espèces dont l'utilisation est citée pour plus de trois provinces comprennent Cymbopogon citratus, Vernonia amygdalina, Rauvolfia vomitoria et Catharanthus roseus. La plupart des espèces identifiées comme plantes antipaludiques sont des essences ligneuses, principalement des phanérophytes. D'autre part, les principaux ingrédients identifiés pour la préparation des remèdes sont les feuilles, utilisées en décoction le plus souvent administrée par voie orale.

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Rubrique
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References

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