Effet de la longueur des radicules et de la taille du conteneur sur les déformations des racines du chêne méditerranéen <i>Quercus suber</i> L.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Samir Benamirouche
Mebarek Chouial
Wiam Guechi

Résumé

L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer les effets de la longueur des radicules au moment de l'ensemencement et de la taille du conteneur sur les déformations des racines chez le chêne méditerranéen Quercus suber L. Des glands de cinq méthodes d’ensemencement – glands intacts, glands germés pendant l'entreposage, glands germés après stratification humide avec des radicelles (R) d'une longueur inférieure à 5 mm, des radicelles d'une longueur comprise entre 7 mm et 12 mm et des radicelles de plus de 15 mm – ont été semés individuellement en conteneurs WM de 400 cm3, 800 cm3 et 1 200 cm3. À la fin de la période de croissance en pépinière, les racines des 1 080 semis échantillonnés ont été examinées pour déceler les déformations des racines. Les résultats obtenus de l'expérience ont montré que la déformation des racines affectait près de la moitié (49 %) des plantules de chêne-liège cultivées en conteneurs et que l'état germinatif des glands au moment de l'ensemencement avait un effet significatif sur les déformations des racines, alors que le volume du conteneur n'avait aucun effet clair. Le plus grand nombre de racines déformées a été observé sur les semis de glands germés par rapport aux semis de glands intacts avec des pourcentages respectifs de 91 % et 9 % des semis inspectés. L'ensemencement de glands germés avec des radicelles de 15 < R < 20 mm et 7 < R < 12 mm de longueur a généré les pourcentages les plus élevés de déformations nuisibles. Indépendamment de sa taille, le type de conteneur WM sans fond s'est révélé très efficace contre la spirale radiculaire fréquemment observée dans les sacs en polyéthylène de forme cylindrique à fond fermé. Les résultats de cette étude peuvent contribuer à améliorer la qualité des semis de chêne-liège pour des programmes de reboisement plus efficaces.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Rubrique
ARTICLE SCIENTIFIQUE

Références

References

Abbas M., 2013. Incidence économique des feux de forêts sur les suberaies. Journées d’étude sur la réhabilitation des subéraies incendiées et reboisement, 16-17 janvier 2013, Université de Tlemcen, Algérie, 10 p.

Amorini E., Fabbio G., 1992. The ISSA system for production of container tree seedlings. The Tree Planter’s Notes, 43 (4): 146-149.

Amoroso G., Frangi P., Piatti R., Ferrini F., Fini A., Faoro M., 2010. Effect of container design on plant growth and root deformation of little leaf linden and field elm. HortScience, 45 (12): 1824-1829. https://doi.org/10.21273/hortsci.45.12.1824

Ball J. B., 1976. Plastic containers and coiling root. Unasylva, 28 (111): 27.

Barnett J. P., 1982. Selecting containers for southern pine seedling production. In: Guilin R. W., Barnett J. P. (eds). Proceedings of the Southern containerized forest tree seedling conference. New Orleans, LA, USA, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report SO-37, 15-24.

Belghazi B., Nahidi A., Belghazi T., 2013. La qualité des plants de chêne-liège en pépinière : effet du volume du conteneur et du substrat. Forêt Méditerranéenne, 34 (1) : 35-44.

Benamirouche S., Chouial M., Messaoudene M., 2018. Storage of cork oak (Quercus suber L., 1753) acorns and effect of storage duration on seedling vigour: artificial regeneration implications. Revue d’Écologie (Terre et Vie), 73 (1): 80-95.

Ben Salem B., 1978. Root form of Pinus pinea seedlings grown in paperpot containers. In: Van Eerden E., Kinghorn J. M. (eds). Proceedings of the Root Form of Planted Trees Symposium. British Columbia Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 8, 96-99.

Bergman F., 1976. Some important facts considering planting with rooted forest plants. The Forestry Chronicle, 52 (6): 266-273. https://doi.org/10.5558/tfc52266-6

Bonner F. T., Vozzo J. A., 1987. Seed biology and technology of Quercus. New Orleans, LA, USA, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report SO-66, 21 p.

Bouderrah M., Zine El Abidine A., Bounakhla A., Lamhamedi M. S., Zouahri A., Mounir F., 2017. Qualité morpho-physiologique des plants de chêne-liège, Quercus suber L., produits dans des pépinières forestières au Maroc. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, 333 (3) : 31-42. https://doi.org/10.19182/bft2017.333.a31466

Brissette J. C., Barnett J. P., Landis T. D., 2012. Con¬tainer seedlings. In: Duryea M. L., Dougherty P. M (eds). Forest regeneration manual. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 117-141.

Caliskan S., 2014. Germination and seedling growth of holm oak (Quercus ilex L.): effects of provenance, temperature, and radicle pruning. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 7: 103-109. https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor0967-007

Carlson L. W., Nairn L. D., 1978. Root deformities in some container-grown Jack pine in Southeastern Manitoba. The Forestry Chronicle, 53 (3): 1-3. https://doi.org/10.5558/tfc53147-3

Chagnon E., 1995. Étude des conséquences de la qualité des glands sur la forme ultérieure des plants en pépinière et en forêt. Quercus robur L. et Quercus petraea Lieblein L. Mémoire de fin d’études, ENITPH d’Angers, France, 83 p.

Chavasse C. G. R., 1978. The root form and stability of planted trees, with special reference to nursery and establishment practice. In: Van Eerden E., Kinghorn J. M. (eds). Proceedings of the Root Form of Planted Trees Symposium. British Columbia Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 8, 54-64.

Chouial M., Benamirouche S., 2016. Effects of sowing methods on growth and root deformations of containerized cork oak (Quercus suber L.) seedlings in nursery. Ecologia Mediterranea, 42 (1): 21- 28.

Corbineau F., Bernard R., 2001. Le gland : une semence courante imparfaitement maîtrisée. Revue Forestière Française, 53 (1) : 29-31. https://doi.org/10.4267/2042/5791

Coutts M. P., Bowen M. R., 1973. Tree physiology. In: Report on Forest Research. London, United Kingdom, Forestry Commission, 89-93.

Davis A. S., Jacobs D. F., 2005. Quantifying root system quality of nursery seedlings and relationship to outplanting performance. New Forests, 30: 295-311. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-005-7480-y

De Champs J., 1978. Influence de divers conteneurs sur l’enracinement de quelques résineux plantés en France. In: Van Eerden E., Kinghorn J. M. (eds). Proceedings of the Root Form of Planted Trees Symposium. British Columbia Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 8, 133-140.

Devine W. D., Harrington C. A., Southworth D., 2009. Improving root growth and morphology of containerized Oregon white oak seedlings. The Tree Planter’s Notes, 53 (2): 29-34.

Ertas A., 2002. Effect of radicle clipping on sessile oak (Quercus petraea Lieb.) seedling’s root surface area and number of taproots. In:. Proceedings of the Third Balkan Scientific Conference « Study, conservation and utilisation of forest resources », Sofia, Bulgaria, 2-6 October 2001, vol. 2, 159-164.

Fiorino P., Nicese F. P., Mingrone M., Riva L., 1998. Effect of different type of container on nursery-grown European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus ‘Pyramidalis'). Atti IV Giornate Scientifiche SOl, San Remo, Italy, 199-200.

Gilman E. F., Yeager T. H., 1987. Root pruning Quercus virginiana to promote a compact root system. In: Proceedings of the Southern Nurserymen’s Association Research Conference, Annual report, 32, 339-341.

Gilman E. F., Kempf B. (eds), 2009. Strategies for growing a high-quality root system, trunk and crown in a container nursery. Visalia, CA, USA, Urban Tree Foundation, 28 p.

Grene S., 1978. Root deformations reduce root growth and stability. In: Van Eerden E., Kinghorn J. M. (eds). Proceedings of the Root Form of Planted Trees Symposium. British Columbia Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 8, 150-155.

Gregorio N. O., Herbohn J. L, Harrison S. R., 2010. Guide to quality seedling production in smallholder nurseries. Foundation for Agricultural Research and Development, Inc. and College of Forestry and Natural Resources, Visayas State University, Baybay City, Leyte, Philippines, 43 p.

Grossnickle S. C., 2005. Importance of root growth in overcoming planting stress. New Forests, 30 (2-3): 273-294. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-004-8303-2

Grossnickle S. C., MacDonald J. E., 2018. Seedling quality: History, application and plant attributes. Forests, 9 (5): 283. https://doi.org/10.3390/f9050283

Guibert M., Le Pichon C., 1998. Influence de la qualité des glands sur la qualité des plants de chêne (2e tranche). Convention DERF/CEMAGREF n° 61.21.11/96. Rapport final, 72 p.

Hahn P., Hutchison S., 1978. Root from of planted trees and their performance. In: Van Eerden E., Kinghorn J. M. (eds). Proceedings of the Root Form of Planted Trees Symposium. British Columbia Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 8, 235-240.

Harris J. R., Fanelli J., Niemiera A., Wright R., 2001. Root pruning pin oak liners affects growth and root morphology. HortTechnology, 11 (1): 49-52. https://doi.org/10.21273/horttech.11.1.49

Hultén H., Jansson K. A., 1978. Stability and root deformation of pine plants (Pinus sylvestris). Stockholm, Sweden, Royal College of Forestry, Department of Reforestation, Report 93, 84 p.

Jaenicke H., 2006. Bonnes pratiques de culture en pépinière forestière. Directives pratiques pour les pépinières de recherche. Nairobi, Kenya, ICRAF, Manuel technique, 3, 89 p. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264014107-fr

Johnson G. R., Hauer R. J., 2000. A practitioner’s guide to stem girdling roots of trees. University of Minnesota Extension Service, St. Paul, USA, 20 p.

Johnson P. S., Shifley S. R., Rogers R., 2002. The ecology and silviculture of oaks. Wallingford, United Kingdom, CABI Publishing, 489 p.

Kostopoulou P., Radoglou K., Papanastasi O. D., Adamido C., 2011. Effect of mini-plug container depth on root and shoot growth of four forest tree species during early developmental stages. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 35: 379-390.

Lacaze J.-F., 1968. Influence des déformations radiculaires au repiquage sur la croissance des plants d’épicéa en pépinière. Revue Forestière Française, 9 : 580-582. https://doi.org/10.4267/2042/20222

Landis T. D., Tinus R. W., McDonald S. E., Barnett J. P., 1990. The container tree nursery manual. Vol. 2. Containers and growing media. Ch. 1. Containers: types and functions. Washington, DC, USA, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 674, 41-85.

Lemaire F., 2003. Cultures en pots et en conteneurs. Versailles, France, Éditions Quæ, 210 p.

Lindström A., Rune G., 1999. Root deformation in plantations of container-grown Scots pine trees: effects on root growth, tree stability and stem straightness. Plant Soil, 217 (1/2): 29-37. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3469-1_3

Luna T., Wilkinson K. M., Dumroese R. K., 2009. Vegetative propagation. In: Dumroese R. K., Luna T., Landis T. D. (eds). Nursery manual for native plants: A guide for tribal nurseries. Vol. 1: Nursery management. Washington, DC, USA, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 730, 153-175.

Madeore C., 1996. Influence de la qualité des glands sur la qualité des plants de chêne. Convention DERF/CEMAGREF n° 61.21.02/95. Groupement de Nogent-sur-Vernisson. Rapport final, 123 p.

March H. W., Appleton B. L., 2004. Use of air root-pruning containers in pot-in-pot systems. Proceedings of the Southern Nurserymen’s Association Research Conference, 49: 51-53.

Marshall M. D., Gilman E. F., 1998. Effects of nursery container type on root growth and landscape establishment of Acer rubrum L. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 16 (1): 55-59.

Mathers H. M., Lowe S. B., Scagel C., Struve D. K., Kase L. T., 2007. Abiotic factors influencing root growth of woody nursery plants in containers. HortTechnology, 17 (2): 151-162. https://doi.org/10.21273/horttech.17.2.151

Mattsson A., 1997. Predicting field performance using seedling quality assessment. New Forests, 13: 227-252.

McClain K. M., 1978. Black spruce raised in Ontario tube can grow well. In: Van Eerden E., Kinghorn J. M. (eds). Proceedings of the Root Form of Planted Trees Symposium. British Columbia Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 8, 166-11.

McCreary D. D., 1996. The effect of stock type and radicle pruning on blue oak morphology and field performance. Annals of Forest Science, 53 (2-3): 641-648. https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:19960242

Mexal J., Burton S., 1978. Root development of Loblolly pine seedlings. In: Van Eerden E., Kinghorn J. M. (eds). Proceedings of the Root Form of Planted Trees Symposium. British Columbia Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 8, 85-90.

Mexal J. G., Landis T. D., 1990. Target seedling concepts: height and diameter. In: Rose R., Campbell S. J., Landis T. D. (eds). Target Seedling Symposium. Roseburg, OR, USA, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 17-35. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.99706

NeSmith D. S., Duval J. D., 1998. The effect of container size. HortTechnology, 8 (4): 495-498.

Nichols C. A., Alm A. A., 1983. Root development of container-reared, nursery-grown and naturally regenerated pine seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 13 (2): 239-245. https://doi.org/10.1139/x83-033

Ortega U., Majada J., Mena-Petite A., Sanchez-Zabala J., Rodriguez-Iturrizar N., Txarterina K., Azpitarte J., Duñabeitia M., 2006. Field performance of Pinus radiata D. Don. produced in nursery with different types of containers. New Forests, 31 (1): 97-112. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-004-7364-6

Riedacker A., 1978. Étude de la déviation des racines horizontales ou obliques issues de boutures de peu¬plier qui rencontrent un obstacle : applications pour la conception de conteneurs. Annals of Forest Science, 35 (1): 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1051/forest/19780101

Ritchie G. A., 1984. Assessing seedling quality. In: Duryea M. L., Landis T. D. (eds). Forest nursery manual: Production of bareroot seedlings. The Hague, The Netherlands, Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Corvallis, OR, USA, Oregon State University, 243-259. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6110-4_23

Rune G., 2003. Slits in container wall improve root structure and stem straightness of outplanted Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica, 37 (3): 333-342. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.493

Ruter J. M., 1993. Growth and landscape performance of three landscape plants produced in conventional and in pot-in-pot productions systems. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 11: 124-127.

Schultz R. C., Thompson J. R., 1997. Effect of density control and undercutting on root morphology of 1+0 bareroot hardwood seedlings: five-year field performance of root-graded stock in the central USA. New Forests, 13 (1-3): 301-314.

Segaran S., Dojack D. C., Rathwell R. K., 1978. Assessment of root deformities of Jack Pine (Pinus Baksiana Lamb.) planted in South-Eastern Manitoba. In: Van Eerden E., Kinghorn J. M. (eds). Proceedings of the Root Form of Planted Trees Symposium. British Columbia Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 8, 197-200.

Stefansson E., 1978. Root quality of pine plantations established with seedlings grown in multiport. In: Van Eerden E., Kinghorn J. M. (eds). Proceedings of the Root Form of Planted Trees Symposium. British Columbia Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 8, 114-118.

Stone E. C., Norberg E. A., 1978. Container-induced root malformation and its elimination prior to planting. In: Van Eerden E., Kinghorn J. M. (eds). Proceedings of the Root Form of Planted Trees Symposium. British Columbia Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 8, 65-72.

Sutton R. F., 1980. Root system morphogenesis. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 10 (1): 265-283.

Thompson B. E., 1985. Seedling morphological evalua¬tion: What you can tell by looking. In: Duryea M. L. (ed.). Evaluating seedling quality: Principles, procedures, and predictive abilities of major tests. Corvallis, OR, USA, Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State Univer¬sity, 59-71.

Tskaldimi M., Zagas T., Tsitsoni T., Ganatsas P., 2005. Root morphology, stem growth and field performance of seedlings of two Mediterranean evergreen oak species raised in different container types. Plant and Soil, 278 (1-2): 85-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-005-2580-1

Valdecanthos A., Cortina J., Vallejo R., 2006. Nutrient status and field performance of tree seedlings planted in Mediterranean degraded areas. Annals of Forest Science, 63 (3): 249-256. https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:2006003

Van Eerden E., 1978. Roots of planted trees in Central British Columbia. In: Van Eerden E., Kinghorn J. M. (eds). Proceedings of the Root Form of Planted Trees Symposium. British Columbia Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 8, 201-208.

Van Sambeek J. M., Godsey L. D., Walter W. D., Garrett H. E., Dwyer J. P., 2016. Field performance of Quercus bicolor established as repeatedly air-root-pruned container and bareroot planting stock. Open Journal of Forestry, 6: 163-176. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojf.2016.63014

Villar-Salvador P., Planelles R., Enriquez E., Penuelas-Rubira J., 2004. Nursery cultivation regimes, plant functional attributes and field performance relationships in the Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex L. Forest Ecology and Management, 196 (2-3): 257-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.02.061

Whitcomb C. E., 1984. Container design: problems and progress. In: Plant production in containers. Stillwater, OK, USA, Lacebark Publications, 107-130.