Caractéristiques de la litière et de la biomasse de certains combustibles de sous-étage marocains dominants dans cinq régions forestières sujettes au feu

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Salaheddine Essaghi
M'hamed Hachmi
Mohammed Yessef
Mohammed Dehhaoui
Abdessadek Sesbou

Résumé

Au Maroc, des efforts ont été faits pour prévenir les feux de forêt, même si les résultats ont été limités parce que les propriétés pyrotechniques des combustibles forestiers n’ont pas été quantifiées de façon adéquate. Pour corriger ce manque, les masses volumiques apparentes de litière, d'arbustes individuels et de biomasse par classe de taille ont été évaluées dans cinq régions forestières propices aux incendies. L’étude a couvert un ensemble de 35 sites, sur des pentes exposées au nord et au sud des régions suivantes : Plateau central, Moyen Atlas (occidental et oriental), Rif occidental et pré-Rif. Les profondeurs de la litière vont de 1,1 (Ononis natrix L.) à 7,5 cm (Daphne laureola L.), et la masse volumique apparente des buissons individuels varie entre 0,35 (D. laureola) et 4,64 mg/cm3 (Thymelaea tartonraira L.). La plus basse masse volumique apparente de combustible fin a été trouvée pour D. laureola (0,22 kg/m3), et la plus haute pour T. tartonraira (4,05 kg/m3). Quant à la masse volumique apparente des buissons individuels, aucune différence intraespèce significative n’a été trouvée entre les régions étudiées, sauf pour Arbutus unedo L., alors que l’effet de la région sur la biomasse du combustible fin n’était pas significatif pour toutes les espèces. Des fonctions linéaires ont été utilisées pour ajuster la biomasse du combustible fin pour l’effet du volume de buissons individuels. Ces ajustements seront très utiles pour les gestionnaires forestiers, parce qu’ils permettent d’estimer la biomasse de combustible fin contenue dans un buisson à l’aide de mesures simples et indépendantes de la taille du buisson. L’intégration des données sur des traits structurels des combustibles dans des systèmes de prédiction du comportement du feu facilitera les estimations du risque d’incendie dans les régions étudiées, et guidera les décideurs dans leurs tâches de protection des ressources humaines et naturelles.

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Rubrique
ARTICLE SCIENTIFIQUE

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