Production de produits forestiers non ligneux et diversité des pratiques de récolte et des processus décisionnels des exploitants dans les forêts communautaires du nord de la Thaïlande

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Wuthiwong Wimolsakcharoen
Pongchai Dumrongrojwatthana
Guy Trébuil

Résumé

Les recherches antérieures sur la foresterie communautaire en Thaïlande se sont principalement concentrées sur les dimensions institutionnelles. Par conséquent, les connaissances intégrées sur la production de produits forestiers non ligneux, les pratiques des exploitants et les processus de prise de décision sont encore limitées, particulièrement en ce qui concerne la foresterie communautaire. Une enquête a été réalisée pour estimer la production de produits forestiers non ligneux et pour caractériser la diversité des pratiques des exploitants et des processus de prise de décision dans les forêts communautaires du nord de la Thaïlande. Des enquêtes sur le terrain ont été menées une fois par mois pendant 12 mois dans sept forêts communautaires du sous-district de Lainan, dans la province de Nan, en utilisant une technique d'échantillonnage basée sur une grille. La production et la productivité des principaux produits forestiers non ligneux ont été calculées en fonction du poids frais total. Des entrevues individuelles approfondies ont été menées auprès de 231 cueilleurs locaux afin de comprendre les pratiques de récolte des produits forestiers non ligneux et les processus décisionnels. Les jeunes pousses de Melientha suavis, les couvées royales d'Oecophylla smaragdina et les champignons comestibles se sont avérés être les trois principaux produits forestiers non ligneux collectés, avec une productivité respectivement de 2, 12 et 2 kg/ha/an. Les pratiques de récolte des exploitants ont été caractérisées comme étant appliquées par (A) les villageois sans terre, (B) les petits et moyens propriétaires terriens, (C) les grands propriétaires terriens, et (D) les étrangers. Les pêcheurs locaux ont présenté différents processus de prise de décision en matière d'exploitation des ressources, selon la période d'occurrence des ressources, la durée de l'exploitation et la quantité récoltée. Les données quantitatives sur la productivité des ressources et la connaissance des pratiques de récolte et des processus décisionnels des exploitants alimenteront un processus participatif de gestion des ressources pour appuyer les échanges de connaissances entre les intervenants locaux et pour explorer des scénarios de règles d'accès appropriées, afin d'améliorer la durabilité de la récolte des produits forestiers non ligneux.

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Rubrique
ARTICLE SCIENTIFIQUE

Références

References
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