LES PISTES FORESTIÈRES EN FORÊT TROPICALE : UNE SYNTHÈSE DE LA LITTÉRATURE EN ANGLAIS ET EN FRANÇAIS MET EN LUMIÈRE UNE RÉDUCTION DES IMPACTS ENVIRONNEMENTAUX GRÂCE AUX TECHNIQUES D’INGÉNIERIE AMELIORÉES

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Fritz Kleinschroth
Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury
Valéry Gond
Plinio Sist
John R. Healey

Résumé

Les pistes forestières sont  considérées comme des causes majeures de dégrada- tion des forêts en raison de leurs impacts directs et indirects sur le fonctionnement et la diversité des écosystèmes. Compte tenu de l’importance de l’exploitation forestière tropi- cale dans le monde, la bonne gestion de l’in- frastructure routière est cruciale pour réduire les impacts environnementaux associés à ces activités tout en réduisant les coûts des opé- rations. Notre étude visait à analyser comment la question des pistes de débardage avait été traitée dans la littérature scientifique. Des études publiées depuis 65 ans, la plupart en français, dans la revue Bois et Forêts des Tro- piques (BFT), ont été comparées à une série d’études plus récentes extraites des  bases  de données Scopus et Web of Knowledge. La moitié des articles BFT datent d’avant 1972, alors que les bases de données plus géné- ralistes indiquent une augmentation régu- lière, depuis cette date, du nombre d’articles publiés sur ce thème, qui atteint aujourd’hui un niveau record. Sur l’ensemble de la biblio- graphie, nous avons sélectionné, à des fins d’évaluation critique, 126 articles traitant des impacts et de la gestion des pistes forestières tropicales. Les articles de BFT se caractérisent par une attention particulière portée à des questions pratiques d’ingénierie, tandis que de nombreux articles rédigés en anglais se concentrent sur l’identification des impacts sur les écosystèmes forestiers. Les impacts environnementaux liés aux pistes forestières proviennent de la destruction du couvert pen- dant leur construction, de l’accroissement des effets de lisière, de l’érosion des sols, de la perturbation de la faune et de l’accès plus facile aux forêts pour la chasse et la colonisa- tion agricole. Nous présentons, sur la base de cette revue de la littérature, une liste de recommandations permettant de réduire ces impacts. En conclusion, nous constatons, que malgré l’intérêt continu pour le sujet des pistes forestières, nous savons très peu de choses sur leur devenir à long terme dans les paysages forestiers.

 

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