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Impact de l’ombrage sur le microclimat d’une plantation de café : étude de cas en Amazonie péruvienne

L. Ehrenbergerová, M. Šenfeldr, H. Habrová

Résumé


L’agroforesterie est considérée comme l’une des stratégies agricoles pouvant contribuer à l’adaptation des cultures au changement climatique. La présente étude de cas visait à comparer les conditions microclimatiques d’une parcelle de Coffea arabica cultivée sous ombrage, principalement Inga spp., et celles d’une parcelle de C. arabica menée en monoculture sans ombrage dans la même plantation de café, dans la région de Pasco au Pérou. La température et l’humidité de l’air, la température du sol et  la disponibilité en eau du sol ont été mesurées pendant trois ans. Les résultats indiquent que l’ombrage des arbres réduit la température moyenne de l’air de 0,4 ± 0,04 °C et la température du sol de 1,7 ± 0,3 °C, et augmente l’humidité de l’air de 3,9 ± 0,4 % par rapport à la zone sans ombrage. Cependant, la moyenne mensuelle des températures de l’air dans la zone non ombragée, et même la température maximale, ne dépassent pas outre mesure la limite permettant la photosynthèse (seuil 34 °C). De plus, les températures minimales mensuelles diffèrent peu entre les zones ombragées et non ombragées, alors que la fluctuation des températures du sol est plus marquée dans la zone non ombragée. Un des principaux constats de cette étude concerne la sécheresse plus marquée des sols dans la zone ombragée, surtout au début et à la fin de la saison sèche. Ceci s’explique probablement par l’augmentation de la transpiration totale par celle des arbres d’ombrage. L’absorption d’eau plus importante en agroforesterie pourrait ainsi avoir un impact négatif sur la croissance des caféiers dans les situations où la disponibilité en eau est un facteur limitatif.


Mots-clés


agroforesterie, humidité de l’air, Coffea arabica, température du sol, disponibilité en eau du sol, Pérou, Amazonie

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Références


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.19182/bft2017.334.a31488



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